Hannah de Rothschild was born on 27th July 1851, an only child to Juliana and Mayer de Rothschild. She was to become one of England's wealthiest heiresses. Her father died on the 6th of February 1874 and her mother suffering from poor health died on 10th March 1877. Hannah inherited Mentmore and 107, Piccadilly London from her father to whom she had been devoted. Attentive and full of fun, Hannah had been his frequent companion at racing and yachting events.

She grew up with a good sense and presence of mind, which enabled her to deputise for her mother on grand social occasions at Mentmore. This experience made her an ideal political wife. She was married to Philip Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, on 20th March 1878. By the time of her marriage , she was an orphan and was thus given away by Disraeli. Her husband, Archie, found her: "very simple, very unspoilt, very clever, very warm-hearted and very shy... I never knew such a beautiful character."

The villages surrounding the Mentmore Estate were endowed with numerous bequests; schools, meeting rooms and houses bore her initials. The Wingrave Infant School being one, which was built and operated entirely at her expense. Hannah involved her school in her family's celebrations and sorrows, which usually merited a day's holiday and a free tea at Mentmore. Lord Rosebery's pride in his wife's efforts was demonstrated by his continuation of the gifts, holidays and teas for some years after Hannah's death. She died of typhoid fever on 19th November 1890 at Dalmeny, her husband's Scottish Seat.